The focal length of the beam is adjusted, allowing the microscope to image a series of horizontal planes stacked vertically. The eventual three-dimensional 3-D image is produced by virtue of natural variation in refractive indices between tissue structures.
A management style, to us, and therefore, to the rest of this paper, is defined as a set of expectations an individual has, as to how they are to use their leadership position to involve themselves and to involve other people in the achievement of results.
Various aspects, such as value systems, technology, organizational design, and globalization, all affect the culture of an organization and come into play when determining what managerial style is best to use.
As we move through the years, these components develop, resulting in the need for managerial styles to change too. If managerial styles are not developed along side with these aspects, the manager will be ineffective and fail.
Management ideas inherently go through a process of distillation before they attain widespread usage and become famous in stature. This process generally takes into consideration five key attributes; a It has to be timely, that is it must address the problems of the current age.
The process can be viewed much like a funnel as in Figure 1. Only a small number of management ideas make it through this filter and become mainstays in our society. It can be stated that there are approximately six management ideas that have successfully made it through this filter in the past years.
These ideas or concepts include bureaucracy, scientific management, administrative management, human relations management, neo-human relations management, and guru theory management.
The many writers and theorists of management philosophies are placed throughout these categories and will be mentioned in this paper. We will now briefly consider in rough chronological order each of these key management ideas.
We will go into more depth with them later. The key to bureaucracy is authority. From a historical perspective authority is based on the belief in the sacred or the extraordinary characteristics of the person giving the orders e.
In a more traditional form, authority was established through the belief that the person giving the orders had done so through tradition e.
Finally, the legal form of authority implied that the person giving the orders was acting in accordance with or under established rules or laws.
The Weberian model of bureaucracy offers a stable and predictable world that provides the blueprint for rationally designed structures in which rational individuals carry out their prescribed actions and tasks.
The bureaucratic form of the organization posses specific features such as specialization, hierarchy, rules, impersonality, full time officials, career focus, and a split between public and private activity. Bureaucracy exists in its purest form in public organizations such as the government.
This can be accounted for by the statement that the larger an enterprise is, the more complicated it becomes. Although one of the oldest management ideas, the appeal of bureaucracy to certain managers is still present today.
Scientific Management The next popular management style to be discussed is scientific management. This focused upon the shop floor and upon the techniques that could be used to maximize productivity of workers doing manual labour.
It is not likely to be applied in its purest form, although, it does make a template for a good number of job design work throughout the twentieth century.
In a typical manufacturing firm one will see scientific management techniques on the shop floor while bureaucratic management would be applied in the office areas.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor originally developed this theory during the early years of this century. Taylor was an American engineer who established the This featured Thesis Statement Examples For Essays is one of many example essays available on this topic.
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