Development of Spanish American Independence Government under traditional Spanish law Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes American junta or insurrection movement Independent state declared or established Height of French control of the Peninsula Political independence was not necessarily the foreordained outcome of the political turmoil in Spanish America. Humphreys and John Lynch note, "it is all too easy to equate the forces of discontent or even the forces of change with the forces of revolution.
At the helm were military leaders such as General Francisco Franco, who were conservatives in all essential respects. When the civil war ended, Franco was so deeply entrenched that the Falange stood no chance; in this strongly authoritarian regime, there was no room for political opposition.
The Falange became junior partners in the government and, as such, they had to accept responsibility for the regime's policy without being able to shape it substantially".
The Falangea fascist party formed during the Republic, soon transformed itself into the framework of reference in the Movimiento Nacional. This party, often referred to as Falange, became the sole party during Franco's regime, but the term "party" was generally avoided, especially after World War II, when it was commonly referred to as the "National Movement" or just as "The Movement".
Authoritarianism[ edit ] The main point of those scholars who tend to consider the Spanish State to be authoritarian rather than fascist is that the FET-JONS were relatively heterogeneous rather than being an ideological monolith. Franco was also the focus of a personality cult which taught that he had been sent by Divine Providence to save the country from chaos and poverty.
University students seeking democracy revolted in the late s and early s, which was repressed by the grises. Like others at the time, Franco evinced a concern about a possible Masonic and Judaic conspiracy against his regime. Franco continued to personally sign all death warrants until just months before he died despite international campaigns requesting him to desist.
Bullfighting and flamenco  were promoted as national traditions, while those traditions not considered Spanish were suppressed. Franco's view of Spanish tradition was somewhat artificial and arbitrary: All cultural activities were subject to censorship and many were forbidden entirely, often in an erratic manner.
This cultural policy relaxed over time, most notably in the late s and early s. Franco was reluctant to enact any form of administrative and legislative decentralisation and kept a fully centralized form of government with a similar administrative structure to that established by the House of Bourbon and General Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja.
These structures were modelled after the centralised French state. As a result of this type of governance, government attention and initiatives were irregular and often depended more on the goodwill of government representatives than on regional needs.
Thus inequalities in schooling, health care or transport facilities among regions were patent: Franco eliminated the autonomy granted by the Second Spanish Republic to the regions and abolished the centuries-old fiscal privileges and autonomy the fueros in two of the three Basque provinces: Guipuzcoa and Biscaywhich were officially classified as "traitor regions".
The fueros were kept in the third Basque province, Alavaand also in Navarrea former kingdom during the Middle Ages and the cradle of the Carlists, possibly due to the region's support during the civil war.
Franco also used language politics in an attempt to establish national homogeneity. Despite Franco himself being Galician, the government revoked the official statute and recognition for the BasqueGalician and Catalan languages that the Second Spanish Republic had granted them for the first time in the history of Spain.
The former policy of promoting Spanish as the only official language of the state and education was resumed, even though millions of the country's citizens spoke other languages.
The legal usage of languages other than Spanish was forbidden: The use of any other language was forbidden in schools, advertising, religious ceremonies and on road and shop signs.
Publications in other languages were generally forbidden, though citizens continued to use them privately. During the late s, these policies became more lenient yet non-Castilian languages continued to be discouraged and did not receive official status or legal recognition.
Additionally, the popularisation of the compulsory national educational system and the development of modern mass media, both controlled by the state and exclusively in Spanish, reduced the competency of speakers of Basque, Catalan and Galician.
Catholicism[ edit ] Although Franco himself was previously known for not being very devout,  his regime often used religion as a means to increase its popularity throughout the Catholic world, especially after the Second World War.
Franco himself was increasingly portrayed as a fervent Catholic and a staunch defender of Catholicismthe declared state religion. The regime favoured very conservative Roman Catholicism and it reversed the secularisation process that had taken place under the Second Republic.
According to historian Julian Casanova"the symbiosis of religion, fatherland and Caudillo" saw the Church assume great political responsibilities, "a hegemony and monopoly beyond its wildest dreams" and it played "a central role in policing the country's citizens".
Some official jobs required a "good behaviour" statement by a priest. According to historian Julian Casanova, "[t]he reports that have survived reveal a clergy that was bitter because of the violent anti-clericalism and the unacceptable level of secularization that Spanish society had reached during the republican years" and the law of made the priests investigators of peoples' ideological and political pasts.
For example, Barcelona's city hall obliged all government functionaries to "tell the proper authorities who the leftists are in your department and everything you know about their activities". A law passed in institutionalised the purging of public offices.
Only through silence could people associated with the Republic be relatively safe from imprisonment or unemployment. After the death of Franco, the price of the peaceful transition to democracy would be silence and "the tacit agreement to forget the past",  which was given legal status by the Pact of forgetting.
Civil marriages that had taken place in Republican Spain were declared null and void unless they had been validated by the Church, along with divorces. Divorcecontraception and abortions were forbidden,  yet enforcement was inconsistent.
The clergy in charge of the education system sanctioned and sacked thousands of teachers of the progressive left and divided Spain's schools up among the families of falangists, loyalist soldiers and Catholic families. Official propaganda confined women's roles to family care and motherhood.
Most progressive laws passed by the Second Republic were declared void. Women could not become judges, or testify in trial.+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Summary of Bourbon reforms Fragility on Spanish hold in texas Treaty of Paris from HIST at Texas A&M University.
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Start studying History Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. The group with the most stake in the Bourbon and Pombaline reforms were: Jose de San Martin led an anti-colonial army from.
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The Bourbon Reforms Named for Charles III ()- comes to throne as first global war. 7 years war or French & Indian War). Britain emerges as a world power during this time. Charles IV () Both come to throne at times of international crisis Political Goals of Bourbon Reforms Centralize decision making process.
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