Effects of single parenthood in kenya

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Effects of single parenthood in kenya

Corporal punishment illegal in schools only Corporal punishment not illegal Legality of corporal punishment of minors in Europe Corporal punishment illegal in both schools and the home Corporal punishment illegal in schools only Corporal punishment legal in schools and in the home Traditionally, corporal punishment of minor children is legal unless it is explicitly outlawed.

The defence is ultimately derived from English law. According to Gershoff, the intent of such bans on corporal punishment is not typically to prosecute parents, but to set a higher social standard for caregiving of children. The Vatican commission appointed to advise the Pope on sexual abuse within the church criticized the Pope for his statement, contending that physical punishments and the infliction of pain were inappropriate methods for disciplining children.

They maintain that "Mainstream faith communities and respected leaders are now supporting moves to prohibit and eliminate all violence against children", including corporal punishment.

Children's comments suggest that children are sensitive to inequality and double standards, and children urge us to respect children and to act responsibly".

It is not possible logically to differentiate between a smack and a physical assault since both are forms of violence. The motivation behind the smack cannot reduce the hurtful impact it has on the child.

In their words, "Societies which promote the needs and rights of children have a low incidence of child maltreatment, and this includes a societal rejection of physical punishment of children". They note that "Parents who spank their children are more likely to use other unacceptable forms of corporal punishment".

The difference between the two is often degree duration, amount of force, object used rather than intent". The study noted that abusive physical punishment tended to be given by fathers and often involved striking the child's head or torso instead of the buttocks or limbs.

She argues that the burden of proof should be high for advocates of corporal punishment as a disciplinary strategy, asserting that "unless and until researchers, clinicians, and parents can definitively demonstrate the presence of [beneficial] effects of corporal punishment [and] not just the absence of negative effects, we as psychologists cannot responsibly recommend its use".

Adam Zolotor, the study's lead author, noted that "increases in the frequency of spanking are associated with increased odds of abuse, and mothers who report spanking on the buttocks with an object—such as a belt or a switch—are nine times more likely to report abuse".

Joan Durrant and Ron Ensom write that "Together, results consistently suggest that physical punishment has a direct causal effect on externalizing behavior, whether through a reflexive response to pain, modeling, or coercive family processes".

However, one existing randomized controlled trial did demonstrate that a reduction in harsh physical punishment was followed by a significant drop in children's aggressive behavior. According to the study's leader, Catherine Taylor, this suggests that "it's not just that children who are more aggressive are more likely to be spanked.

According to Gershoff, the Conflict Tactics Scale is "the closest thing to a standard measure of corporal punishment".

Those who reported experiencing "severe physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, or exposure to intimate partner violence" were not included in the results.

Effects of single parenthood in kenya

According to the researchers, the findings "provide evidence that harsh physical punishment independent of child maltreatment is related to mental disorders". According to Gershoff, research indicates that the more corporal punishment children receive, the more likely they are as adults to act violently towards family members, including intimate partners.

Chris Ferguson employed an alternative statistical analysis that still showed negative outcomes in children subjected to spanking and corporal punishment, but found the overall relationship to be "trivial" or nearly so.

However, Ferguson acknowledged this still indicates harmful outcomes and noted some limitations of his analysis, stating "On the other hand, there was no evidence from the current meta-analysis to indicate that spanking or CP held any particular advantages.

They urge support for parents to use "more effective, non-violent methods of discipline". They assert that corporal punishment often promotes further undesirable behaviors such as defiance and attachment to "delinquent" peer groups and encourages an acceptance of aggression and violence as acceptable responses to conflicts and problems.

The Canadian Paediatric Society, therefore, recommends that physicians strongly discourage disciplinary spanking and all other forms of physical punishment". They recommend that parents be "encouraged and assisted in the development of methods other than spanking for managing undesired behavior".

In particular, the AAP believes that any corporal punishment methods other than open-hand spanking on the buttocks or extremities, including striking with an object, striking which leaves marks lasting longer than a few minutes, pulling by the hair, jerking a child's arm and shaking a child, "should never be used".

In the AAP's opinion, such punishments, as well as "physical punishment delivered in anger with intent to cause pain", are "unacceptable and may be dangerous to the health and well-being of the child. In their words, "[R]eliance on spanking as a discipline approach makes other discipline strategies less effective to use".

The AAP believes that spanking as a form of discipline can easily lead to abusenoting also that spanking children younger than 18 months of age increases the chance of physical injury.

In the Committee's view, "Addressing the widespread acceptance or tolerance of corporal punishment of children and eliminating it, in the family, schools and other settings, is not only an obligation of States parties under the Convention.

Effects of single parenthood in kenya

It is also a key strategy for reducing and preventing all forms of violence in societies". The first purpose of law reform to prohibit corporal punishment of children within the family is prevention: The Commissioner stresses that human rights, including the right to physical integrity, are the primary consideration in advocating an end to corporal punishment:What is RU?

RU is a chemical compound that, taken in pill form, can induce abortion in women up to nine weeks pregnant. This compound gets the first part of its name from the French company, Roussel Uclaf, which first developed the abortion pill back in Jan 20,  · Population Connection A year-old girl in Kenya who has resorted to having an unsafe abortion after she was unable to access legal services.

Last week the 46th session of the Commission on Population and Development concluded at U.N. headquarters. 45 member nations participated. The five-day session was described as fraught with tension and disagreement because most of the states were "concerned about the economic implications of migration, looking at the effects of remittances," said Mohammad Zia-ur-Rehman, chief executive of.

Most single parents want the best for their children despite the circumstances. Although there are an increasing number of single parent homes in the U.S., the effects can often be long-term for kids who are in the care of a single mother or father.

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved". Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as.

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