We are studying what we shall want in order to appear before judges, or to advise people in such a way as to keep them out of court. The reason why it is a profession, why people will pay lawyers to argue for them or to advise them, is that in societies like ours the command of the public force is intrusted to the judges in certain cases, and the whole power of the state will be put forth, if necessary, to carry out their judgments and decrees.
You can help by adding to it. February See also: Software law IT law does not constitute a separate area of law rather it encompasses aspects of contract, intellectual property, privacy and data protection laws.
national federation of independent business v. sebelius, secretary of health and human services. The Path of the Law. by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. 10 Harvard Law Review () When we study law we are not studying a mystery but a well-known profession. Welcome to the website of the Scottish Legal Action Group. We aim to increase understanding of the law and legal services, and work to improve the legal system for the benefit of those people in Scotland who are economically, socially or otherwise disadvantaged.
Intellectual property is an important component of IT law, including copyrightrules on fair useand special rules on copy protection for digital media, and circumvention of such schemes. The area of software patents is controversialand still evolving in Europe and elsewhere.
In various countries, areas of the computing and communication industries are regulated — often strictly — by governmental bodies.
There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put, in particular there are rules on unauthorized accessdata privacy and spamming. There are also limits on the use of encryption and of equipment which may be used to defeat copy protection schemes. The export of hardware and software between certain states within the United States is also controlled.
There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to government information, and individual access to information held on them by private bodies.
There are laws on what data must be retained for law enforcement, and what may not be gathered or retained, for privacy reasons.
In certain circumstances and jurisdictions, computer communications may be used in evidence, and to establish contracts. New methods of tapping and surveillance made possible by computers have wildly differing rules on how they may be used by law enforcement bodies and as evidence in court.
Computerized voting technology, from polling machines to internet and mobile-phone voting, raise a host of legal issues. Some states limit access to the Internet, by law as well as by technical means.
Jurisdiction[ edit ] Issues of jurisdiction and sovereignty have quickly come to the fore in the era of the Internet. Jurisdiction is an aspect of state sovereignty and it refers to judicial, legislative and administrative competence.
Although jurisdiction is an aspect of sovereignty, it is not coextensive with it. The laws of a nation may have extraterritorial impact extending the jurisdiction beyond the sovereign and territorial limits of that nation.
This is particularly problematic as the medium of the Internet does not explicitly recognize sovereignty and territorial limitations. There is no uniform, international jurisdictional law of universal application, and such questions are generally a matter of conflict of lawsparticularly private international law.
An example would be where the contents of a web site are legal in one country and illegal in another. In the absence of a uniform jurisdictional code, legal practitioners are generally left with a conflict of law issue. Another major problem of cyberlaw lies in whether to treat the Internet as if it were physical space and thus subject to a given jurisdiction's laws or to act as if the Internet is a world unto itself and therefore free of such restraints.
Those who favor the latter view often feel that government should leave the Internet community to self-regulate.Uses and Abuses of Gresham's Law in the History of Money.
Robert Mundell. Columbia university. August Introduction. 1. Early Expressions. 2. Faulty Renderings. Uses and Abuses of Gresham's Law in the History of Money.
Robert Mundell. Columbia university. August Introduction. 1. Early Expressions. 2. Faulty Renderings. Course Overview. This qualifying Law degree is taught by the world-leading, research-active academics based in our prestigious Law School. They will introduce you to technical legal topics and help you to understand the ways that law shapes society.
In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".
The discovery of this tendency is attributed to Maurice Duverger, a French sociologist who observed the effect. In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".
The discovery of this tendency is attributed to Maurice Duverger, a French sociologist who observed the effect. Welcome to Penn Law Review Online, the online home of the University of Pennsylvania Law Review.
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