A solution is a homogenous mixture of solute dissolved in bulk liquid known as the solvent. Solutions can be described by their solute concentration, a measure of how much solute is present per unit of solution. In this video, a step-by-step procedure for how to make a water-based, or aqueous, solution for biological applications is presented. The video discusses how to calculate and measure the amount of solute needed for a given volume of solution.
FDA has not cleared any liquid chemical sterilant or high-level disinfectant with alcohol as the main active ingredient. These alcohols are rapidly bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic against vegetative forms of bacteria; they also are tuberculocidal, fungicidal, and virucidal but do not destroy bacterial spores.
Top of Page Mode of Action. The most feasible explanation for the antimicrobial action of alcohol is denaturation of proteins. This mechanism is supported by the observation that absolute ethyl alcohol, a dehydrating agent, is less bactericidal than mixtures of alcohol and water because proteins are denatured more quickly in the presence of water Protein denaturation also is consistent with observations that alcohol destroys the dehydrogenases of Escherichia coliand that ethyl alcohol increases the lag phase of Enterobacter aerogenes and that the lag phase effect could be reversed by adding certain amino acids.
The bacteriostatic action was believed caused by inhibition of the production of metabolites essential for rapid cell division. Top of Page Microbicidal Activity.
Methyl alcohol methanol has the weakest bactericidal action of the alcohols and thus seldom is used in healthcare The bactericidal activity of Solution of zychol chemicals casestudy concentrations of ethyl alcohol ethanol was examined against a variety of microorganisms in exposure periods ranging from 10 seconds to 1 hour Isopropyl alcohol isopropanol was slightly more bactericidal than ethyl alcohol for E.
Isopropyl alcohol is not active against the nonlipid enteroviruses but is fully active against the lipid viruses Studies also have demonstrated the ability of ethyl and isopropyl alcohol to inactivate the hepatitis B virus HBVand the herpes virus, and ethyl alcohol to inactivate human immunodeficiency virus HIVrotavirus, echovirus, and astrovirus Top of Page In tests of the effect of ethyl alcohol against M.
InSpaulding stated that alcohols were the germicide of choice for tuberculocidal activity, and they should be the standard by which all other tuberculocides are compared. The mucin-loop test is a severe test developed to produce long survival times.
Thus, these figures should not be extrapolated to the exposure times needed when these germicides are used on medical or surgical material Top of Page Uses.
Alcohols are not recommended for sterilizing medical and surgical materials principally because they lack sporicidal action and they cannot penetrate protein-rich materials. Fatal postoperative wound infections with Clostridium have occurred when alcohols were used to sterilize surgical instruments contaminated with bacterial spores Alcohols have been used effectively to disinfect oral and rectal thermometers,hospital pagersscissorsand stethoscopes Alcohols have been used to disinfect fiberoptic endoscopesbut failure of this disinfectant have lead to infection Alcohol towelettes have been used for years to disinfect small surfaces such as rubber stoppers of multiple-dose medication vials or vaccine bottles.
Furthermore, alcohol occasionally is used to disinfect external surfaces of equipment e. In contrast, three bloodstream infection outbreaks have been described when alcohol was used to disinfect transducer heads in an intensive-care setting Top of Page The documented shortcomings of alcohols on equipment are that they damage the shellac mountings of lensed instruments, tend to swell and harden rubber and certain plastic tubing after prolonged and repeated use, bleach rubber and plastic tiles and damage tonometer tips by deterioration of the glue after the equivalent of 1 working year of routine use Tonometer biprisms soaked in alcohol for 4 days developed rough front surfaces that potentially could cause corneal damage; this appeared to be caused by weakening of the cementing substances used to fabricate the biprisms Corneal opacification has been reported when tonometer tips were swabbed with alcohol immediately before measurement of intraocular pressure Alcohols are flammable and consequently must be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area.
They also evaporate rapidly, making extended exposure time difficult to achieve unless the items are immersed. Chlorine and Chlorine Compounds Overview. Hypochlorites, the most widely used of the chlorine disinfectants, are available as liquid e.
The most prevalent chlorine products in the United States are aqueous solutions of 5. They have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, do not leave toxic residues, are unaffected by water hardness, are inexpensive and fast actingremove dried or fixed organisms and biofilms from surfaces, and have a low incidence of serious toxicity Sodium hypochlorite at the concentration used in household bleach 5.
The microbicidal activity of chlorine is attributed largely to undissociated hypochlorous acid HOCl. A potential hazard is production of the carcinogen bis chloromethyl ether when hypochlorite solutions contact formaldehyde and the production of the animal carcinogen trihalomethane when hot water is hyperchlorinated Solution Of Zychol Chemicals Casestudy.
ZYCHOL CHEMICAL CORPORATION: Bob Richard, the production manager of Zychol Chemicals, in Houston, Texas, is preparing his quarterly report, which is to include a productivity analysis for his benjaminpohle.com of the inputs is production data prepared by Sharoaton Walford, his operation analyst.
Zychol Chemicals Case Solution.
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(Solution Download) Zychol chemicals corporation case study answers. Description.
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Instant Solution Download for the question described below. The Question. zychol chemical corporation - case study Read the case “Zychol Chemicals Corporation” given below and concisely answer the questions that follow at the end of the case study As a general guideline, please try to limit your answers to a paragraph or two for each of the questions.
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