Waves and photons[ change change source ] Photons are particles much smaller than atoms and protons and electrons.
The math is a way of describing things that happen in the real world. You might imagine that it would be easy to get both the exact position of something and its exact mass, path, and speed at the same time. However, in reality you have to do two things to get your answer.
If you are measuring the position and momentum of a bullet that is stuck in a cliff of a great mountain somewhere, it is a simple matter. The mountain does not appear to be going anywhere, and neither is the bullet.
So its position is known and its velocity is 0, so its momentum is also 0.
But if the bullet is somewhere between a gun and a target, it will be difficult to get its position at any given time. The best we may be able to do is to take its picture using a camera with a very fast shutter.
But a single squeeze of the shutter would give you only one thing, the bullet's position at time t. To get the momentum we might put a block of paraffin in the bullet's way and measure how the block of paraffin moved when it stopped the bullet.
Or, if we knew the bullet's mass, we might take a sequence of two pictures, compute the velocity by knowing the difference between the two positions of the bullet and the time between its two appearances. However we do it, we need to measure mass and position and time between appearances.
We end up making at least two measurements to get to x and p. In that case we have to choose which measurement to make first, and which to make second. It seems to make no difference which order our measurements are made in.
Measuring the bullet's mass and then measuring its positions twice, or measuring the bullet's positions twice and then recovering the bullet and measuring its mass would not make any difference, would it?
After all, we have not done anything to the bullet when we weigh it or when we make photographs of it. On the very small scale when we are measuring something like an electron, however, each measurement does something to it.
If we measure position first, then we change its momemtum in the process. If we measure the electron's momentum first, then we change its position in the process. Our hope would be to measure one of them and then measure the other before anything changed, but our measuring itself makes a change, and the best we can hope to do is to reduce to a minimum the energy we contribute to the electron by measuring it.
That minimum amount of energy has the Planck constant as one of its factors. Uncertainty goes beyond matrix math[ change change source ] Heisenberg's uncertainty principle was found in the earliest equations of the "new" quantum physics, and the theory was given by using matrix math.
Indeterminacy in nature, not uncertainty of humans[ change change source ] There have been two very different ways of looking at what Heisenberg discovered: Some people think that things that happen in nature are "determinate," that is, things happen by a definite rule and if we could know everything we need to know we could always say what will happen next.
Other people think that things that happen in nature are guided only by probabilityand we can know only how things will behave on the average—but we know that very precisely.
The physicist John Stewart Bell discovered a way to prove that the first way cannot be correct. His work is called Bell's theorem or Bell's Inequality. Popular culture[ change change source ] The expression "quantum leap" or "quantum jump" has been taken to mean some great and transformative change, and it is often used in hyperbolic expressions by politicians and mass media sales campaigns.
In quantum mechanics it is used to describe the transition of an electron from one orbit around the nucleus of an atom to any other orbit, higher or lower. Sometimes the word "quantum" is used in the names of commercial products and businesses. For instance, Briggs and Stratton manufactures many kinds of small gasoline motors for lawn mowers, rotary tillers, and other such small machines.
One of their model names is "Quantum. An anthropologist may go to some far away place to learn how people live there, but the fact that a strange person from the outside world is there watching them may change the ways that those people act.
Things that people do while observing thing that change what is being observed are cases of the Observer effect.Later Life, and Death ''Not only is the Universe stranger than we think, it is stranger than we can think.'' -Werner Heisenberg- After the war, Heisenberg focused his work on finding a unified.
Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg [David C. Cassidy] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Werner Heisenberg's genius and his place at the forefront of modern physics are unquestioned.
His decision to remain in Germany throughout the Third Reich and his role in Hitler's atomic bomb project are still topics of heated debate/5(10). Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is one of the most important results of twentieth century physics.
It relates to measurements of sub-atomic benjaminpohle.comn pairs of measurements such as (a) where a particle is and (b) where it is going (its position and momentum) cannot be precisely pinned down.
p Early life Werner Karl Heisenberg was born on December 5, , in Würzburg, Germany, the son of August and Annie Wecklein Heisenberg. I am reading Uncertainty - The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg, by David C. Cassidy. It is really good. I'm at the part, about , where Heisenberg and Niels Bohr are working on the quantum mechanics of nuclear physics.
The development of Australian science in pre-war era was dependent on the individual achievements of a few famous scientists. Several of the famous Australian scientists went abroad for better facilities, better payoffs and more recognition. Throughout the last two .