I value morality as ought implies a moral obligation. Before we form a society we are in a state of anarchy called the state of nature. Given these conditionsthe State of Nature would be unbearably brutal.
Federal courts[ edit ] Section 1 vests the judicial power of the United States in federal courts, requires a supreme court, allows inferior courts, requires good behavior tenure for judges, and prohibits decreasing the salaries of judges.
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.
The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. Number of courts[ edit ] Article III authorizes one Supreme Court, but does not set the number of justices that must be appointed to it.
Since number of justices has been fixed by at nine by the Judiciary Act of During the Constitutional Conventiona proposal was made for the Supreme Court to be the only federal court, having both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
This proposal was rejected in favor of the provision that exists today. Under this provision, the Congress may create inferior i.
The Article III courts, which are also known as "constitutional courts", were first created by the Judiciary Act ofand are the only courts with judicial power.
Article I courts, which are also known as "legislative courts", consist of regulatory agencies, such as the United States Tax Court. Later, in Ex parte Bakelite Corp. Congress through Federal Law80 Stat. The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill offrequently called the court-packing plan was a legislative initiative to add more justices to the Supreme Court proposed by President Franklin D.
Roosevelt shortly after his victory in the presidential election. Although the bill aimed generally to overhaul and modernize the entire federal court systemits central and most controversial provision would have granted the President power to appoint an additional justice to the Supreme Court for every incumbent justice over the age of 70, up to a maximum of six.
The Judiciary Act of increased the number of courts to permit the Federalist President John Adams to appoint a number of Federalist judges before Thomas Jefferson took office.
When Jefferson became President, the Congress abolished several of these courts and made no provision for the judges of those courts. Judicial Code of abolished "circuit riding" and transferred the circuit courts authority and jurisdiction to the district courts.
Tenure[ edit ] The Constitution provides that judges "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior. A judge may also be removed by impeachment and conviction by congressional vote hence the term good behavior ; this has occurred fourteen times.
Three other judges, Mark W. Delahay George W. English and Samuel B. Kent chose to resign rather than go through the impeachment process. Salaries[ edit ] The compensation of judges may not be decreased, but may be increased, during their continuance in office.
Judicial power, jurisdiction, and trial by jury[ edit ] Section 2 delineates federal judicial power, and brings that power into execution by conferring original jurisdiction and also appellate jurisdiction upon the Supreme Court. Additionally, this section requires trial by jury in all criminal cases, except impeachment cases.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;—between a State and Citizens of another State;—between Citizens of different States;—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Cases and controversies[ edit ] Main article:A debate in The Wall Street Journal's Big Issues series. Yes, says Josh Bloom, drug patents should be extended because the development of new medications demands it.
No, says Els Torreele, because. AFFIRMITIVE Supreme Court justice Potter Stewart once said, "Fairness is what justice really is." It is because of this that I affirm the resolution stating Resolved: The US ought to extend to non-citizens accused of terrorism the same constitutional due process protections it grants its citizens.
Put this one under the category of nothing makes sense in the world any more. The state of Kansas is looking to extend a contract with a Medicaid application processing company that by most.
For the fourth time in his NFL tenure, Randy Moss began his stretch with a new team on Monday night by averaging over 20 yards per reception and by scoring a touchdown. And while the loss to the. Resolved: The United States ought to extend to non citizens accused of terrorism the same constitutional due process protections it grants to citizens.
The Latin word tendere, meaning to “stretch” or “to spread,” and its form tentus give us the roots tend, tent, and benjaminpohle.com from the Latin tendere have something to do with stretching or spreading. A tent is a temporary shelter made from stretched out fabric.
To distend is to stretch outward and swell in all directions. To extend is to stretch out.